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Acid Free (Neutral pH) A quality of all papers manufactured by Mohawk. Acid-free papers are manufactured in an alkaline environment, which prevents the internal chemical deterioration of the paper over time. The addition of calcium carbonate as a buffer also makes the paper resistant to the effects of an external acidic environment.
Adhesion The strength of which a label material will adhere to a surface measuere in gsm/sq/cm. Mohawk pressure sensitive products are available in permanent, removable, ultra-removable, and ultra-cling adhesion levels
AF&PA The American Forest & Paper Association is the national trade association for the forest, paper and wood products industry. Members grow, harvest and process wood and wood fiber, manufacture pulp, paper and paperboard products from both virgin and recycled fiber and produce solid wood products. One of AF&PA’s main objectives is to support sound environmental and economic practices in the growth, harvest and use of forests.
Air emissions Air polluting by-products from combustion or manufacturing activities.
Air Mail Envelope A light-weight envelope with red and blue border and Air Mail printed on the face and designed to keep the weight down for postage savings.
Alternative energy Energy sources that are not based on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms. For example, solar energy, wind power, wave power, and hydroelectricity.
ANSI American National Standards Institute facilitates the development of consensus standards and conformity assessment systems.
Aqueous Water-based coating applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
A-style Envelope Announcement style, open side envelope with double side seam construction and a square flap.
Back Gum Also referred to as seam gum. The adhesive used to seal the seam on the back of the envelope.
Banding A counting method in which a paper band is placed around a specific number of envelopes. Most commonly used for greeting card envelopes.
Bang Tail An open side envelope with a perforated tail of paper attached to the backflap.
Bankers Flap A rectangular seal flap with rounded corners. Also known as a wallet flap.
Baronial Mostly used for announcements and greeting cards, this envelope style has a large pointed flap and diagonal seams.
Basis Weight Weighing 500 sheets of any grade of paper in its standard basic size will determine its basis weight. In other words, 500 sheets of 17 x 22 24-pound bond will weigh 24 pounds. The standard basic size for writing papers is 17 x 22, text is 25 x 38, and cover is 20 x 26.
Beneficial use The use of a waste product that poses no threat to human health or the environment in another process that provides a positive benefit to the public and the environment; for example, the use of sludge, a by-product of paper manufacturing, in the composting of materials to produce a high-grade soil conditioner.
Bleed An image that is printed to the edges of a page, or the ability of a press or printer to print an image to the edges of a page. A full bleed document is printed on a larger sheet and is trimmed to size, since ink or toner would foul press cylinders or belts if it actually extended off the edges of the paper.
Bond Originally a term applied to cotton-content paper used for printing bonds and legal documents, and distinguished by strength, performance, and durability. Bond paper may now be made from either cotton, chemical wood pulp, or a combination of the two. Today, writing, digital, and cut-size papers are often identified with the bond scale.
Book General term for papers suitable for the graphic arts; may be coated or uncoated. Equivalent in weight to text papers.
Booklet Envelope An open sided envelope which seals on the long side.
Bottom Flap That portion of the envelope folded up and sealed along the edges of the side flaps to form the pocket.
Brightness Brightness is measured as the percentage of light in a narrow spectral range reflected from the surface of a sheet of paper. It is not necessarily related to color or whiteness. A paper with a brightness of 98 (like Mohawk Navajo) is an extremely bright sheet with almost all light being reflected back to the viewer. Bright white papers illuminate transparent printing inks, giving cleaner, crisper color, and contrasty blacks.
Business Reply Envelope (BRE) A pre-addressed envelope with a first class permit and return address in which the original sender pays for its return.
Business Return Envelope An envelope with a pre-printed return address but no postage.
Butt Cut A cut where the edge of the labels touch.
Caliper Caliper is a measure of paper thickness expressed in thousandths of an inch. The micrometer is used to measure caliper.
Carbon dioxide A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas normally part of ambient air. In large quantities (such as those produced by the burning of fossil fuels) it contributes to climate change.
Carbon Neutral describes products, operations and activities which have had their carbon dioxide emissions: 1) calculated; 2) reduced where possible; 3) “offset” through credits that fund additive, emission-free energy projects such as methane capture and destruction, windpower, solar energy, fuel switching, and energy efficiency projects.
Case Binding To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board, plastic or leather. Also called hard cover.
Cast Coated High-gloss coated paper manufactured by casting the coating paper against a highly polished, heated steel drum.
Catalog Envelope An open end, center seam envelope with the seal flap on the short end.
Cationic A chemical substance in which the active constituent is a positive ion, thus having an infinity for other compounds or elements that have a net negative charge. Although cationic dyes are now commonly used in the papermaking industry, Mohawk was a pioneer in their use when they first came on the market in the early to mid-1980’s.
Center Seam The permanent seam that joins the two side flaps together at the center of the envelope.
CERES Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics is the leading U.S. coalition of environmental, investor, and advocacy groups working together for a sustainable future.
Chain of custody A systematic procedure for tracking a material or product from its origin to its final use.
Click Term for one revolution/one copy on a digital copier/printer.
Closures The method of securing the seal flap to the back of the envelope such as seal gum, string- and-button, metal clasp.
CMYK A method of representing color based on the standard printing ink colors of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. Scanners and video monitors deal in rgb.
Coated Paper Made with a surface coating, which allows for maximum smoothness and ink holdout in the printing process. Coated papers are available in a range of finishes from dull to matte, and gloss.
Coin Envelope A small open end envelope used for small items such as coins, jewelry or parts.
Color Separation The process of separating a color image into a series of single-color (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) images that will be used as negatives. Printed on top of one another, the color separations create a full-color (or “process”) image. Color separation was initially done by photographing the image three times through different color filters. However, electro-optical methods using lasers and ccds are now employed.
Commercial Style Open side envelope with diagonal or double side seam with a commercial style flap.
Commodity Envelope Mass produced, value priced, standard sized envelopes made from white wove or brown kraft paper.
Compliance Complying with enforceable rules, regulations, laws, or mandates. Compliance can be with regulatory and/or voluntary programs.
Conductivity The electrical property of a sheet of paper which enables it to attract charged toner. Low conductivity can result in poor image quality in digital systems.
Images are printed using grid-like screens that separate the image into evenly spaced dots that are larger in size in the darker areas and smaller in size in the light areas. In four color process printing, separate screens are used to reproduce each of the four colors, black, cyan, magenta and yellow.
Converting The process of manufacturing an envelope from parent-sized sheets of paper.
Copier/Duplicator The traditional light lens copier focuses light from the original through a lens onto a photoconductive receptor that converts light energy into spots of electrical energy that accept toner for transfer to paper. Newer copiers are actually combinations of digital scanners and electronic printers that take the spots of the scanned image and output them as laser energy to create a charge on the photo receptor for toner transfer.
Corner Card The printed return address in upper left hand corner.
Corona The element that cleans the photoconductive drum or belt of an electrophotographic system after an image is printed.
Cover Bristol Two sheets of lighter weight papers that have been laminated together creating a heavy weight cover with the best printing surface and finishing properties.
Cover Paper Also called card stock, these papers are heavyweight coated or uncoated paper with good folding characteristics. Their diverse uses include folders, booklet covers, brochures and pamphlets.
Crossovers Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
Cut Size Papers cut to a small common size, usually 8.5x11” and 17x11”.
Deboss To press an image into paper so it lies beneath the surface.
Deckle Edge Produced in hand-papermaking by drainage under a wooden frame surrounding the hand mould. The rough edges on hand-made and some machine-made papers were originally considered an imperfection. The deckle edge came back in fashion with the handcraft revival in the last decade of the 19th century.
Diagonal Grain Cutting The grain of the paper runs diagonally across the face of the envelope, corner to corner. Also known as cross grain or random cutting.
Diagonal Seam A seam running diagonally from the bottom fold upward toward the throat of the envelope.
Die Cutting The process of using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes for labels, boxes and containers from printed sheets. Die-cutting can be done on either flatbed or rotary presses.
Digital Imaging Surface A new and unique surface treatment for both uncoated and coated papers, specifically engineered to enhance paper:toner performace and yield increased print fidelity.
Digital Papers The same characteristics that make a great offset substrate apply to digital substrates: formation, smoothness, and brightness. In addition, digital substrates are made to specific caliper and pre-defined moisture levels and are precision-cut to digital sheet sizes/rolls. These characteristics are built into the manufacturing specs for runnability and performance in digital presses. Digital substrates may also have a product-specific surface treatment for dry toner, liquid toner and inkjet applications. An example is Mohawk’s proprietary i-Tone treatment for digital substrates. There’s also an expanding world of specialty digital products that may not be paper. They include things like pre-converted forms, synthetic sheets, layflat papers, pressure sensitive materials, and magnetic materials.
Digital Proofing Proofing directly from digital files, as opposed to using film to create proofs.
Dioxin Dioxins are produced during incineration of wastes and are a contaminant in chemical manufacturing processes. Dioxin is also a by-product of older, chlorine pulp bleaching technologies. Dioxins are environmentally persistent compounds that find their way into the food chain. They have been linked to chronic diseases such as cancer and are believed to be a cause of birth defects.
Distributed Printing Also called distribute and print. Electronically forwarding a file and then printing the job at the point of delivery.
Document Envelope Sometimes referred to as legal envelopes, these are large, open side, double side seam outside, hex flap envelopes produced from heavy manila or brown kraft stock with heavy seal gum, used for mailing and storage of documents requiring security and confidentiality.
Dots Per Inch (dpi) Measure of the resolution of a screen image or printed page. Dots are also known as pixels. The Macintosh screen displays 72 dpi, the LaserWriter printer prints 300 dpi; and a photo imagesetter can print 2540 dpi or more.
Double-Thick Cover Stiff, durable cover papers produced by laminating together two pieces of equal-weight paper. The resulting sheet is heavy and strong, with excellent printing and folding characteristics
Duotone Black and white image reproduced using two half-tone negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal values in the original.
Duplexing The ability of a press or printer to print on both sides of a page without having to manually turn the sheet over.
Dynamic Range Scanner’s ability to capture an image’s gradations from the lightest highlight to the darkest shadow.
ECF Elemental Chlorine Free: refers to virgin fiber pulps or papers which have been bleached without the use of elemental chlorine gas, thus preventing the formation of dioxins.
Edge to Edge Label/Adhesive material is from one end of the label sheet to the other with no stripped matrix.
EHS or EH&S Stands for environmental, health and safety. Usually used when referring to a company's management system for these areas.
Electronic Printing Guarantee Mohawk cut-size papers that are denoted by an E symbol are guaranteed to run in office copiers, laser or digital color production presses within the limits determined by the equipment manufacturer. These same papers are perfectly suited for small format offset and DI presses. Uncoated papers are suitable for desktop inkjet printers; coated papers are exclusively for dry-toner laser imaging. If you plan to preprint rolls (excluding heat-set web), folio-size or cut-size sheets with offset lithography and follow standard industry guidelines for pre-printing, we will extend our per¬formance guarantee after pre-printing. Because machine specifica¬tions for paper thickness, surface texture, and sheet sizes vary widely between equipment brands, Mohawk encourages testing paper on your particular printer before committing to a large program. Samples are readily available from the mill. The Mohawk electronic printing guarantee is limited to replacement cost of the paper only and is void if using paper outside of your manufacturers’ recommended paper specifications for weight, size, and finish. All claims are subject to Mohawk Fine Papers Inc. complaint handling procedures and policies.
Electrophotography A printing or copying method, which uses an electrical charge to create an image on a photoconductive surface. Toner is attracted to the charged area and then transferred and fused to paper.
Embossing Impressing an image in relierf to achieve a raised surface. This can be registered over printing or on blank paper which is also called blind embossing.
Engraving A printing impression made by stamping the paper into inked depression that are etched into a metal plate. The etchings are created with an acid wash first, then hand-tooled with artistic craftsmanship. The precise nature of engraving adds elegance to the final printed surface, bringing out the very best intentions of the artist or designer.
Environmental sourcing The purchase of environmentally preferable products, along with efforts to support suppliers with sound environmental practices.
Environmental Standard for Recycled Printing and Writing Papers or Coated Papers Federal Standard (Executive Order 12783) that establishes minimum content standards for printing and writing paper procured by federal agencies. The Federal Executive Order calls for a 30% post-consumer fiber minimum for uncoated papers, and a 10% post-consumer fiber minimum for coated papers.
Environmentally sound manufacturing Manufacturing processes that are designed to minimize harmful environmental impacts.
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) An alternative picture file format supported by Adobe Systems and third-party developers. It allows PostScript data to be stored and edited and is easy to transfer between Macintosh, ms-dos and other systems. Will output only to PostScript devices, not to a display screen. Also referred to as eps files.
Felt Woven textile, originally wool but now usually synthetic, used to carry the web while moisture is pressed from it. While on the paper machine, the felt acts as a support for the paper web. Felts, if they are rough, can impart a felt finish to the paper.
Finish (1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations.
Flexography Flexographic printing uses rubber or photopolymer plates and water- or solvent-based inks in simple two-roller anilox inking systems.
Foil Stamping A process that uses a die to transfer a smooth foil or pigment coating to the paper, giving a lustrous metallic or colored image.
Formation Refers to the uniformity and distribution of fibers within a sheet of paper. In a well formed sheet, solid ink coverage will go down smoothly. A poorly formed sheet will exhibit a mottled appearance when printed. Formation can be checked by holding the paper up to a light source: A well formed sheet appears uniform, while in a poorly formed sheet the fibers appear as clumps, giving it a cloudy look.
French Fold Two folds at right angles to each other.
FSC Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is a nonprofit organization that encourages the responsible management of the world’s forests and sets standards that ensure forestry is practiced in an environmentally responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable way.
Genuine Felt Finish A finish applied to paper by means of marking felts while the paper web is still very wet. These felts impart their distinctive textures by gently rearranging the paper fibers. This creates a soft, resilient, textured surface suitable for printing and relief operations.
Grain Direction As the paper web is carried forward on the machine, the majority of fibers orient themselves in the machine direction. When the web of paper is sheeted, the sheets will be grain long (fibers that follow the long side of the sheet) or grain short (they follow he short side). Grain direction should be considered during the design process for best results during printing, folding, and converting.
Green Seal Green Seal is a nonprofit organization devoted to environmental standard setting, product certification, advertising claims substantiation and public education.
Green-e Green-e is a program of the nonprofit Center for Resource Solutions which offers certification and verification of renewable energy products (RECs).
Grid-based electric demand reduction programs Programs in which participating companies reduce their electric energy consumption in periods of heavy demand, such as during a heat wave, in order to prevent widespread failure of the electric power system. Electric consumers are given financial incentives in the form of cost savings to reduce their energy load.
GSM Grams per square meter is the metric standard for paper weight. GSM calculates the actual weight of a square meter of that particular paper.
Halftone Because laser printers and printing presses cannot produce gray, the reproduction of a continuous-tone image, such as a photograph, is processed through a screen that converts the image into dots of various sizes to provide the illusion of gray.
Head-to-foot Head-to-foot refers to a watermark configuration on the master sheet in which the head or top of the watermark reads to the bottom or foot of the watermark above. Therefore, on the master sheet all watermarks read correctly from one side of the sheet. The watermark imprints perpendicular to the paper grain. See this pdf for more info.
Head-to-head Head-to-head refers to a watermark configuration on a master sheet in which the head of one watermark reads to the head of the watermark above, whichis upside down. Therefore, on the master sheet half of the watermarks read correctly from one side of the sheet while the other half appear upside down. The watermark imprints along the paper grain. See this pdf for more info.
Hickies A spot of imperfection in printing most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage. Often caused by dirt on the plate or blanket.
High conservation value forest Forests that possess environmentally valuable attributes. See this pdf for more info.
Imposition The arrangement of pages on a press sheet so they are in the proper order when folded.
Impressions A usually quantitative number of audience encounters with a brand, advertising campaign or single advertisement.
Ink Holdout A characteristic of paper related to its capacity to keep ink sitting on its surface rather than absorbing into the sheet. Better ink holdout produces sharper printed images.
Inkjet A type of printer that sprays droplets of ink onto paper to form an image. Continuous inkjet printers spray a continuous stream of ink, which is electronically controlled to print an image. Drop on demand inkjet printers shoot out single drops of ink as needed.
Inxwell Revolutionary technology created and patented by Mohawk Paper Mills. Exclusive chemical technology produces text and cover papers with the classic uncoated feel, but with the added advantages of superior ink holdout, lower dot gain, and significantly increased opacity. Inxwell is available on Mohawk Options, and is ideal for both offset and digital printing.
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is comprised of national standards institutes from 148 countries in partnership with governments and industry to develop international standards.
i-Tone i-Tone is a proprietary Mohawk surface technology with a unique affinity for both wet and dry toner. It is engineered to provide consistent, high fidelity image quality, greater durability and images less broken by paper's surface topography.
No "J" words.
Kiss Cut Refers to the die cutting of a label face sheet only and not the liner.
Laid A linear pattern which is applied by a dandy roll while the paper is still very wet, to mimic the effect of some hand-made papers. The laid dandy roll is comprised of wires that run parallel to the roll’s axis (laid lines), and chain lines, which connect the laid lines and run in the grain direction.
Laser Acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission from Radiation. An intense, focused beam of light used in many imaging systems to produce images through electronic impulses.
Laser Paper Very smooth, low-moisture papers manufactured in cut sizes for laser printers and office duplicating equipment. Low moisture prevents paper curling from high heat in laser printers. Note: If your job is designed to run through a laser printer, you should specify laser-compatible offset inks.
Laser Printer A desktop printer that uses a laser beam to create an image on a photoconductive drum. Dry toner is attracted to the charged area and is fused to paper with heat and/or pressure.
Lay Flat Binding A method of binding that allows the publication to lay fully open.
Letterpress Letterpress printing is relief printing of text and image using a press with a "type-high bed" printing press and movable type, in which a reversed, raised surface is inked and then pressed into a sheet of paper to obtain a positive right-reading image.
Linen Finish One of the many textured effects that is produced by embossing a web of paper with a patterned steel roll. Embossing takes place off the machine as a separate operation.
Liner The backing material that supports the pressure sensitive face sheet. Only lay flat liners are used for Mohawk pressure sensitive products.
Localized Watermark A localized mark always appears in the specified position on the sheet. Traditionally, these marks are centered within the lower two-thirds of the sheet to make sure they will not be covered by the printed letterhead. Tolerances for localized marks are +/- .5 inch (13 mm) top to bottom and left to right of the specified location.
Logo A graphic representation of a company name, trademark or product, typically designed for recognizability, memorability and market differentiation. The meaning of a logo is defined by the quality of the thing it represents, not the other way around.
Logotype A typographic representation of a company name, trademark or product. May stand alone or with a logo or icon.
Loop Stitching Loop Stitching is a method of binding one or more printed sections together, with or without a cover, by means of loop wire staples (stitches) through the spine and centrefold.
Lpi Halftone screens are measured in lines per inch. A low lpi indicates a coarse screen ruling; higher lpi’s indicate finer screens.
Machine Felt Finish Rubber marking rolls apply a felt-type finish to paper right before the dryer section. This technique yields a softer surface than embossing, and better bulk. The surface is slightly harder than with a genuine felt finish. Though less natural in feel, a machine-felt texture is more economical and provides greater ink holdout because of its compact surface.
Make-Ready Work done to a press to make it ready for printing a particular image, including loading plates, paper, ink and toner, as well as adjustment of color and registration.
Mil The thickness of a syntheic face sheet on pressure sensitive, or the thickness of an unsupported film, such as polyester film or PVC.
Moisture Content The amount of moisture found in a sheet of paper. If the moisture content in a sheet is too high or too low, the paper can curl or build up static, which affects the way it runs through a press, printer or copier.
M-Weight The weight, in pounds, of 1000 sheets of paper of a given size.
Non-integrated mill A paper mill that does not have an on-site pulp mill and must purchase all the pulp it requires.
Offset Paper Uncoated paper designed for use in offset lithography. Important properties include good internal bonding, high surface strength, dimensional stability, lack of curl, and freedom from foreign surface material.
Offset Printing A printing process that uses an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier (the plate) to the substrate (usually paper).
Old growth forest Forestlands that have undergone a natural progress of succession, without significant human intervention, until they are comprised primarily of a dominant species of tree.
On Demand The ability to print only the documents you want, in the quantities you want, when you want.
On-Demand Printing Term for new business developing around short-run color printing. Small quantities of high-quality color printing can be delivered “on demand” wherever and whenever required.
Opacity Measure of the percentage of light passage through a sheet of paper. The more opaque a paper is, the less show-through there will be from printing on the sheet below. Basis weight, brightness, type of fibers, fillers, coatings, and formation all influence opacity. Generally, opacity and brightness are inversely related to each other: the brighter the paper, the less opaque. Mohawk’s revolutionary Inxwell papers provide brightness along with higher opacity. Other factors that affect opacity are bulk, surface smoothness, and shade.
OPI (Open Prepress Interface) A method for replacing high-resolution images with a placeholder image, called a viewfile, proxy image, or FPO image, to minimize the handling large data files. OPI-compliant publishing programs let you layout pages as usual, using text, line art, charts, graphics, and other images, but substitute a small viewfile with OPI comments for high-resolution images to make your working files smaller and more manageable. OPI software generates the viewfiles and automates the process of merging the image data back into the page. OPI is one of the most common forms of image replacement. Other methods are DCS (Desktop Color System) and APR (Automatic Picture Replacement).
Paper and Envelope Converter A company that constructs various envelopes and other end-use products from parent-size sheets of paper.
Paper Grade A system used to classify papers by their common features or content, such as recycled, coated or newsprint papers.
Paper Merchant A liaison between the paper manufacturer and the paper buyer who offers a number of lines of papers and can offer advice to buyers on the best sheets to specify for particular jobs. Merchants sell paper and envelopes to printers.
Paper Stores A retail outlet often run by a paper distributor, which sells paper in cut sizes — such as Mohawk Digital Papers — to end users. Paper stores typically offer a larger assortment of premium printing papers and envelopes than Office Superstores, which tend to emphasize papers for xerography.
PCF Process Chlorine Free refers to postconsumer recycled fiber pulps and papers that were processed without the use of any additional chlorine or chlorine compounds. If these papers also contain a percentage of virgin fiber, the virgin fiber must have been processed without the use of any chlorine or chlorine compounds (TCF). Because PCF paper contains recycled-content fibers, PCF paper production can also reduce water, energy and virgin fiber usage.
Perfect Binding To bind using glue on a spine that has been ground evenly.
Pixel Stands for picture element; the smallest dot you can draw on the screen. A pixel is also a location in video memory that corresponds to a point on the graphics screen when the viewing window includes that location. In a monochrome display, each pixel can be either black or white, so it can be represented by a bit; thus, the display is said to be a bitmap. In color or gray-scale displays, several bits in ram may represent the image. In a high-resolution display each pixel is represented by either two or four bits. Thus, the display is a pixel map instead of a bitmap.
Plateless Printing A printing process in which an image is transferred directly to paper or another substrate without the use of a printing plate.
Porosity The characteristic of a paper’s surface that lets air pass through it.
Postconsumer recycled fiber Fiber recovered for papermaking from postconsumer waste paper.
Postconsumer waste A material or product that has served its intended use and has been discarded for disposal after passing through the hands of a final user. PCW is a part of the broader category “recycled material".
PostScript Computer language created by Adobe Systems. PostScript allows a programmer to create complex pages using a series of commands. Text and graphics can be controlled with mathematical precision.
PPML/VDX An open standard defined by CGATS that allows designers and printers to exchange final-form variable data documents, just like PDF allows designers and printers to exchange traditional documents.
Preflighting Covers all the information and skills needed to quickly, accurately, and effectively determine if all job components required for output, and/or proofing are met before a project enters the production workflow, including font issues completeness of electronic mechanicals missing page elements communicating with the originator linked image files.
Pressure sensitive Any product that has a liner with a face sheet that has an adhesive applied.
Process Color The colors of ink or toner-cyan, magenta, yellow and black-used in four-color offset and digital printing.
Proofing Moving to dotlessness may be the theme in the color proofing area. The contract proof (the verification proof that the client, service bureau, and printer agree will be the standard for color and quality) issue is moving toward an uneasy acceptance. Most contract proofs have used film-based technology, but with the increasing move to all-digital workflows, and as computer-to-plate systems avoid film entirely, film-based proofing is being replaced by proofs from digital data. A contract proof has traditionally shown the exact halftone dot structure so that potential printing problems like moiré can be avoided.
Quadtone Image reproduced using four negatives and four inks, each one used to emphasize different tonal ranges in the original.
Rainforest Alliance The Rainforest Alliance is a leading international conservation organization whose objective is to protect the environment, wildlife, workers and communities by implementing better business practices for biodiversity conservation and sustainability.
Random Watermark Each sheet will contain a complete watermark, but the position will not be consistent. In some sheets, the mark may even be cut.
RECs Renewable Energy Certificates are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.
Recycled A product which has met the end of its useful life and is then remanufactured into another product.
Registered Emboss A relief image created by using a recessed die that is exactly matched to a printed area.
Registration To place printing properly with regard to the edges of sheet and to other printing on the sheet. Such printing is considered in register.
Remote Proofing A major trend is that of remote proofing, where an ink jet or dye sublimation or other color proofer is physically installed in a customer location. PDFs from the customer are sent to the prepress or printing service and processed. The server system prepares a version of the PDF that calibrates to the eventual reproduction device and the files are returned to the customer for proofing printout. Since the PDF files are compressed, they can be sent via telecommunications lines to and from the customer.
Removable Adhesive 340 gsm/sq/cm: Adhesive is aggressive removable.
Renewable energy Renewable energy is energy that is derived from continuously available sources that do not rely on exhaustible fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas. Examples of renewable energy are wind, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal and ocean tides.
Resolution The degree of clarity of a display or printer image. Resolution is usually specified in dots per inch (dpi). The higher the resolution, or the greater the number of dpi, the sharper the image. For film recorders, resolution usually refers to the number of lines that makes up the entire screen on a display or on film. The resolution of film recorders ranges from the low pc standard (200 lines for cgato 350 lines for ega) up to 10,000 lines.
RGB Abbreviation for red-green-blue; a method of displaying color video by transmitting the three primary colors as three separate signals. There are two ways of using rgb with computers: ttlrgb, which allows the color signals to take on only a few discrete values; and analog rgb, which allows the color signals to take on any values between.
Saddle Stitching To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine.
Sculptured Emboss A relief image created by using a series of dies with varying depths to give added dimension to the embossed image.
SFI Sustainable Forestry Initiative. The Sustainable Forestry Initiative was developed in 1995 by the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) and is comprised of management practices designed to ensure the future health and growth of forests.
Sheffield A measurement of paper smoothness. The higher the number, the rougher the sheet. Typical Sheffield smoothness values are 50-90 for very smooth paper and 250-350 for vellum paper.
Side Stitching To bind by stapling sheets along the edge; also called side wire.
Sludge (Paper) The fiber and other components of papermaking that are recovered from wastewater treatment processes.
SmartWood A nonprofit environmental organization whose purpose is to improve the effectiveness of sustainable forestry in conserving biodiversity and providing equity for local communities, fair treatment to workers and creating incentives for businesses so that they can benefit economically from responsible forestry practices.
Smoothness The surface quality of a sheet of paper, related to the flatness of the sheet. Smoothness affects ink and toner receptivity. The Sheffield scale measures smoothness. A higher value typically indicates a rougher sheet.
Smythe Sewn A method of sewing together folded, gathered and collated signatures with a single thread through the folds of the individual signatures.
Soft Touch Aqueous A water-based coating that imparts a leather-like, rubbery feel with a rich matte appearance to printed materials.
Spiral Binding To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plasic looped through holes.
Stewardship (Environmental) A commitment to make environmental protection and enhancement an integral part of the corporate mission.
Stochastic Screens A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots of equal size and variable spacing. Also called Frequency Modulated screening.
Stripped Matrix The face sheet material that is stripped away in the manufacturing process around the edge of the pressure label.
Substrate The material upon which another material is coated as in printing.
Sustainable Development practices that are inclusive of business, social, and environmental goals.
Synthetic Refers to any non-paper product such as polyester, flexible vinyl, PVC, etc.
TCF Totally Chlorine Free: refers to virgin fiber pulps and papers which have been bleached without the use of any chlorine at all. Alternative bleaching techniques using oxygen, ozone, or hydrogen peroxide are employed instead. TCF pulps are not readily available in the US.
Text and Cover Papers A class of high-quality uncoated papers in a wide variety of colors and textures. Text is usually made with a matching or coordinating cover.
Thermography a process which creates special embossed effects for printed stationery, invitations, greeting cards, etc. Special non-drying inks are dusted with a powdered compound. After the excess powder on the non-printing areas is removed by suction, the sheet passes undera heater which fuses the ink and powder. The print swells or raises in relief to produce an engraved effect.
TIFF or Tagged Image File Format A file format used for storing and exchanging bitmapped or raster images, such as are created in paint or photo manipulation programs.
Tip-In Usually in the book or magazine arena, an additional page inserted beyond the normal bindery process.
Toner Tiny plastic resin particles that are used in the electrophotographic printing process to form an image. Toners can be dry or liquid. For both types, the toner particles are charged and applied to the image area on a photoconductive drum or looped belt. Then it is applied and fused to paper.
Touchplate A extra plate for an additional color used to attain a shade that four-color process cannot produce well.
Trap How well a printed ink can accept the next ink printed compared with how well blank paper accepts that ink. The thickness of ink application; the drying time of that ink; the printing ink sequence; and the settings of the press all affect trap.
Trapping The process of overlapping two adjoining colors in an image so that holes are not left in the image by the normal registration variations of the printing process. There is usually some debate about who should handle trapping-the designer or the printer-so it’s important to discuss the matter before any files are created.
Tritone Image reproduced using three negatives and three inks, each one used to emphasize different tonal values in the original.
Ultra Cling 30 gsm/sq/cm: Repositionable, lightest tack, leaves no residue.
Ultra Removable Adhesive 70 gsm/sq/cm: Repositionable, leaves no residue.
Uncoated Paper Paper manufactured with no surface coating. There is a wide variety of grades and levels of quality among uncoated papers.
Unsupported Film A sheet of synthetic material without a liner, or backing.
UV Coatings Liquid applied to a printed sheet then bonded and cured with UV radiation.
UV Inks Solventless inks that are cured by UV radiation.
Variable Imaging/Data Printing The ability to print different text and/or images on each sheet of paper that runs through a printer or press. Both the press and the software driving it must be able to offer this capability in order for the process to work.
Varnish A thin protective coating applied to a a printed sheet for protection or appearance.
Vector A computer file that uses mathematical formulas to describe lines, curves and tints. Draw programs can create/handle vector images.
Vellum Finish Natural or machine finish, like antique or eggshell.
Waterless Printing A process on which fountain solution is not necessary. Non-image areas of the printing plate are treated with silicone so that they reject ink.
Watermarks Designs formed in fine wire or in low-relief metal castings and sewn onto the dandy roll. The resulting thick and thin areas make the watermark slightly more translucent than the rest of the sheet. Watermarks were historically used to convey a sense of quality in letterhead papers.
Welding Occurs when the edges of paper is not cut cleanly, causing them to stick together.
Well-managed forests The primary objective of the Forest Stewardship Council is that forests are managed in an environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable manner. Forests and management practices are inspected and audited against standards developed by the FSC.
Wet Strength Describes a paper that has chemical and/or physical components added to improve moisture resistance.
Wind energy Electric energy that is produced by wind-driven turbines (windmills).
Wind farm A cluster or group of wind turbines (windmills) placed in a location that has an above-average occurrence of strong and steady winds. Good locations include hilly terrain, canyons or shorelines of large water bodies.
Wind turbine A wind turbine is a mechanical device that converts the energy of wind into electricity.
Wire Side The side of the sheet that rests on the paper machine wire as it moves through the wet end, as distinguished from the felt or top side.
Wire-o Binding A continuous double series of wire loops run through punched slots along the bindging side of a booklet.
Writing Paper Suitable for pen and ink, pencil, laser printing or offset printing. Writing grades are designed for letterheads, corporate identity programs, and office copiers.
Xerography An electrophotographic process that electrostatically charges an image on a photoconductive drum or belt. The charge attracts toner, which is then fused to paper.
No "Y" words.
No "Z" words.